Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Company Policy [Policy Text Block]
The Company
We are a specialty pharmaceutical company developing proprietary therapeutics for the treatment of serious medical disorders. Our product development programs utilize our proprietary long-term drug delivery platform, ProNeura®, and focus primarily on innovative treatments for select chronic diseases for which steady state delivery of a drug provides an efficacy and/or safety benefit. We are directly developing our product candidates and also utilize corporate, academic and government partnerships as appropriate. We operate in only one business segment, the development of pharmaceutical products. All share and per share amounts give retroactive effect to a 1 for 5.5 reverse stock split effected in September 2015.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern. At December 31, 2015, we had cash of approximately $7.9 million, which we believe is sufficient to fund our planned operations through the end of 2016.
In February 2016, the FDA extended the agency action date for the Probuphine NDA by three months to May 27, 2016. At December 31, 2015, we had cash of approximately $7.9 million, which we believe is sufficient to fund our planned operations through the end of 2016. Accordingly, any substantial additional delay by the FDA could adversely impact our ability to continue our product development programs for PD and hypothyroidism without obtaining additional financing, which is unlikely to be available on acceptable terms during this ongoing review process. If we are unable to complete a debt or equity offering, or otherwise obtain sufficient financing in the event of further delays, the progress of our development programs will be curtailed and our business and prospects could be materially adversely impacted. Furthermore, in order to advance our current ProNeura development programs to later stage clinical studies, we will require additional funds, either through payments from Braeburn under the license agreement in the event the Probuphine NDA is ultimately approved or through other financing arrangements, to complete the clinical studies and regulatory approval process necessary to commercialize any additional products we might develop.
Use of Estimates, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Share-based Compensation, Option and Incentive Plans Policy [Policy Text Block]
Stock-Based Compensation
We recognize compensation expense using a fair-value based method, for all stock-based payments including stock options and restricted stock awards and stock issued under an employee stock purchase plan. These standards require companies to estimate the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model. See Note 12 “Stock Plans,” for a discussion of our stock-based compensation plans. Our non-cash stock-based compensation expense related to employees and non-employee members of our Board totaled $1.0 million, $0.5 million and $0.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Warrants Issued In Connection With Equity Financing [Policy Text Block]
Warrants Issued in Connection with Equity Financing
We generally account for warrants issued in connection with equity financings as a component of equity, unless there is a deemed possibility that we may have to settle warrants in cash. For warrants issued with deemed possibility of cash settlement, we record the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting period and record changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income (Loss).
Cash And Cash Equivalents And Marketable Securities [Policy Text Block]
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Marketable Securities
Our investment policy emphasizes liquidity and preservation of principal over other portfolio considerations. We select investments that maximize interest income to the extent possible given these two constraints. We satisfy liquidity requirements by investing excess cash in securities with different maturities to match projected cash needs and limit concentration of credit risk by diversifying our investments among a variety of high credit-quality issuers and limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The estimated fair values have been determined using available market information. We do not use derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio.
All investments with original maturities of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents. Marketable securities, consisting primarily of high-grade debt securities including money market funds, U.S. government and corporate notes and bonds, and commercial paper, are classified as available-for-sale at time of purchase and carried at fair value. If the fair value of a security is below its amortized cost and we plan to sell the security before recovering its cost, the impairment is considered to be other-than-temporary. Other-than-temporary declines in fair value of our marketable securities are charged against interest income. We did not have cash equivalents or marketable securities as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 and for any of the periods presented.
Property, Plant and Equipment, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
Revenue Recognition, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Revenue Recognition
We generate revenue principally from collaborative research and development arrangements, technology licenses, and government grants. Consideration received for revenue arrangements with multiple components is allocated among the separate units of accounting based on their respective selling prices. The selling price for each unit is based on vendor-specific objective evidence, or VSOE, if available, third party evidence if VSOE is not available, or estimated selling price if neither VSOE nor third party evidence is available. The applicable revenue recognition criteria are then applied to each of the units. 
Revenue is recognized when the four basic criteria of revenue recognition are met: (1) a contractual agreement exists; (2) transfer of technology has been completed or services have been rendered; (3) the fee is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured. For each source of revenue, we comply with the above revenue recognition criteria in the following manner:
Technology license agreements typically consist of non-refundable upfront license fees, annual minimum access fees or royalty payments. Non-refundable upfront license fees and annual minimum payments received with separable stand-alone values are recognized when the technology is transferred or accessed, provided that the technology transferred or accessed is not dependent on the outcome of our continuing research and development efforts.
Royalties earned are based on third-party sales of licensed products and are recorded in accordance with contract terms when third-party results are reliably measurable and collectability is reasonably assured. We no longer recognize royalty income related to the Fanapt royalty payments received from Novartis unless Fanapt sales exceed certain thresholds (see Note 8, “Royalty Liability” for further discussion).
Government grants, which support our research efforts in specific projects, generally provide for reimbursement of approved costs as defined in the notices of grants. Grant revenue is recognized when associated project costs are incurred.
Collaborative arrangements typically consist of non-refundable and/or exclusive technology access fees, cost reimbursements for specific research and development spending, and various milestone and future product royalty payments. If the delivered technology does not have stand-alone value, the amount of revenue allocable to the delivered technology is deferred. Non-refundable upfront fees with stand-alone value that are not dependent on future performance under these agreements are recognized as revenue when received, and are deferred if we have continuing performance obligations and have no evidence of fair value of those obligations. Cost reimbursements for research and development spending are recognized when the related costs are incurred and when collections are reasonably expected. Payments received related to substantive, performance-based “at-risk” milestones are recognized as revenue upon achievement of the clinical success or regulatory event specified in the underlying contracts, which represent the culmination of the earnings process. Amounts received in advance are recorded as deferred revenue until the technology is transferred, costs are incurred, or a milestone is reached.
In Process Research and Development, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Research and Development Costs and Related Accrual
Research and development expenses include internal and external costs. Internal costs include salaries and employment related expenses, facility costs, administrative expenses and allocations of corporate costs. External expenses consist of costs associated with outsourced clinical research organization activities, sponsored research studies, product registration, patent application and prosecution, and investigator sponsored trials. We also record accruals for estimated ongoing clinical trial costs. Clinical trial costs represent costs incurred by CROs, and clinical sites. These costs are recorded as a component of research and development expenses. Under our agreements, progress payments are typically made to investigators, clinical sites and CROs. We analyze the progress of the clinical trials, including levels of patient enrollment, invoices received and contracted costs when evaluating the adequacy of accrued liabilities. Significant judgments and estimates must be made and used in determining the accrued balance in any accounting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions. Revisions are charged to expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known.
Earnings Per Share, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Net Income (Loss) Per Share
Basic net income (loss) per share excludes the effect of dilution and is computed by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue shares were exercised into shares. In calculating diluted net income (loss) per share, the numerator is adjusted for the change in the fair value of the warrant liability (only if dilutive) and the denominator is increased to include the number of potentially dilutive common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method.
The following table sets forth the reconciliation of the numerator and denominator used in the computation of basic and diluted net income (loss) per common share for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013: 
Years ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share amounts)
Net income (loss) used for basic earnings per share
Less change in fair value of warrant liability
Net (loss) income used for diluted earnings per share
Basic weighted-average outstanding common shares
Effect of dilutive potential common shares resulting from options
Effect of dilutive potential common shares resulting from warrants
Weighted-average shares outstanding—diluted
Net income (loss) per common share:
The table below presents common shares underlying stock options and warrants that are excluded from the calculation of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding used for the calculation of diluted net income (loss) per common share. These are excluded from the calculation due to their anti-dilutive effect for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013: 
Years ended December 31,
(in thousands)
Weighted-average anti-dilutive common shares resulting from options and awards
Weighted-average anti-dilutive common shares resulting from warrants
Comprehensive Income, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income and loss for the periods presented is comprised solely of our net income and loss. Comprehensive loss for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 was $ 11.3 million and $2.4 million, respectively. Comprehensive income for the year ended December 31, 2013 was $9.7 million.
New Accounting Pronouncements, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In July 2013, the FASB issued ASU No. 2013-11, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Presentation of an Unrecognized Tax Benefit When a Net Operating Loss Carryforward, a Similar Tax Loss, or a Tax Credit Carryforward Exists, providing guidance on the presentation of unrecognized tax benefits in the financial statements as either a reduction to a deferred tax asset or a liability to better reflect the manner in which an entity would settle at the reporting date any additional income taxes that would result from the disallowance of a tax position when net operating loss carryforwards, similar tax losses or tax credit carryforwards exist. The amendments in this ASU do not require new recurring disclosures. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2013. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively to all unrecognized tax benefits that exist at the effective date. The adoption of the amendments in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-09”), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP.
The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods therein, using either of the following transition methods: (i) a full retrospective approach reflecting the application of the standard in each prior reporting period with the option to elect certain practical expedients, or (ii) a retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially adopting ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of adoption (which includes additional footnote disclosures). We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our financial statements and have not yet determined the method by which we will adopt the standard.
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-12, Accounting for Share-Based Payments When the Terms of an Award Provide That a Performance Target Could Be Achieved after the Requisite Service Period (“ASU 2014-12”). The standard provides guidance that a performance target that affects vesting of a share-based payment and that could be achieved after the requisite service condition is a performance condition. As a result, the target is not reflected in the estimation of the award’s grant date fair value. Compensation cost for such award would be recognized over the required service period, if it is probable that the performance condition will be achieved. ASU 2014-12 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted. The guidance should be applied on a prospective basis to awards that are granted or modified on or after the effective date. Companies also have the option to apply the amendments on a modified retrospective basis for performance targets outstanding on or after the beginning of the first annual period presented as of the adoption date. The adoption of this ASU did not have a significant impact on our financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which supersedes the existing guidance for lease accounting, Leases (Topic 840). ASU 2016-02 requires lessees to recognize leases on their balance sheets, and leaves lessor accounting largely unchanged. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted for all entities. ASU 2016-02 requires a modified retrospective approach for all leases existing at, or entered into after, the date of initial application, with an option to elect to use certain transition relief. We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2016-02 on our financial statements.
Subsequent Events, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Subsequent Events
We have evaluated events that have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2015 and through the date that the financial statements are issued.
Fair Value Measurement, Policy [Policy Text Block]
Fair Value Measurements
We measure the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on authoritative guidance which defines fair value, establishes a framework consisting of three levels for measuring fair value, and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. There are three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 – quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable;
Level 3 – inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions).
Financial instruments, including receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities are carried at cost, which we believe approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. Our warrant liabilities are classified within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the value is calculated using significant judgment based on our own assumptions in the valuation of these liabilities.
As a result of the fair value adjustment of the warrant liabilities, during the year ended December 31, 2015 we recorded a non-cash loss on increases in the fair value of $4,512,000 and during the year ended December 31, 2014 we recorded a non-cash gain on decreases in the fair value of $1,083,000 in our statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss). See Note 9, “Warrant Liability” for further discussion on the calculation of the fair value of the warrant liability.
The following table rolls forward the fair value of the Company’s warrant liability, the fair value of which is determined by Level 3 inputs for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):
December 31,
Fair value, beginning of period
Issuance of warrants
Reclassification of Class A and Underwriter warrants to equity
Change in fair value
Fair value, end of period