Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Policies||
1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
We are a pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics utilizing our proprietary long-term drug delivery platform, ProNeura, for the treatment of select chronic diseases for which steady state delivery of a drug provides an efficacy and/or safety benefit. We have been transitioning to a commercial stage enterprise following the reacquisition of Probuphine® (buprenorphine) implant, or Probuphine, on May 25, 2018 from our former licensee. Probuphine is the first product based on our ProNeura technology approved in the U.S., Canada and the European Union, or EU, for the maintenance treatment of opioid use disorder, or OUD, in select patients. We operate in only one business segment, the development and commercialization of pharmaceutical products.
In January 2019, pursuant to prior stockholder authorization, our board of directors (the “Board”) effected a reverse split of the outstanding shares of our common stock at a ratio of one share for every six shares then outstanding (the “Reverse Split”). Pursuant to their respective terms, the number of shares underlying our outstanding options and warrants was reduced and their respective exercise prices increased by the Reverse Split ratio. The number of shares of common stock authorized and the par value of $0.001 per share did not change as a result of the Reverse Split. All share and per share amounts contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K give retroactive effect to the Reverse Split.
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern.
At December 31, 2019, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $5.2 million, which we believe, together with the net cash proceeds of approximately $8.0 million received from the registered direct offering of our common stock in January 2020 and exercises of outstanding warrants to purchase shares of our common stock in the first quarter of 2020, are sufficient to fund our planned operations into the fourth quarter of 2020. We will require additional funds to finance our operations. We are exploring several financing alternatives; however, there can be no assurance that our efforts to obtain the funding required to continue our operations will be successful.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Going concern assessment
We assess going concern uncertainty in our financial statements to determine if we have sufficient cash on hand and working capital, including available borrowings on loans, to operate for a period of at least one year from the date the financial statements are issued or available to be issued, which is referred to as the “look-forward period” as defined by Accounting Standard Update ASU No. 2014-15. As part of this assessment, based on conditions that are known and reasonably knowable to us, we will consider various scenarios, forecasts, projections, estimates and will make certain key assumptions, including the timing and nature of projected cash expenditures or programs, and its ability to delay or curtail expenditures or programs, if necessary, among other factors. Based on this assessment, as necessary or applicable, we make certain assumptions around implementing curtailments or delays in the nature and timing of programs and expenditures to the extent we deem probable those implementations can be achieved and we have the proper authority to execute them within the look-forward period in accordance with ASU No. 2014-15.
Based upon the above assessment, we concluded that, at the date of filing the financial statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, we did not have sufficient cash to fund our operations for the next 12 months without additional funds and, therefore, there was substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within 12 months after the date the financial statements were issued. Additionally, we have suffered recurring losses from operations and have an accumulated deficit that raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is based on the first in, first out method. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand and write down to its net realizable value any inventory that we believe to be impaired. The determination of net realizable value requires judgment including consideration of many factors, such as estimates of future product demand, product net selling prices, current and future market conditions and potential product obsolescence, among others. The components of inventories are as follows:
We recognize compensation expense using a fair-value based method, for all stock-based payments including stock options and restricted stock awards and stock issued under an employee stock purchase plan. These standards require companies to estimate the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option pricing model. See Note 9 “Stock Plans,” for a discussion of our stock-based compensation plans.
Warrants Issued in Connection with Equity Financing
We generally account for warrants issued in connection with equity financings as a component of equity, unless there is a deemed possibility that we may have to settle the warrants in cash. For warrants issued with deemed possibility of cash settlement, we record the fair value of the issued warrants as a liability at each reporting period and record changes in the estimated fair value as a non-cash gain or loss in the Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Our investment policy emphasizes liquidity and preservation of principal over other portfolio considerations. We select investments that maximize interest income to the extent possible given these two constraints. We satisfy liquidity requirements by investing excess cash in securities with different maturities to match projected cash needs and limit concentration of credit risk by diversifying our investments among a variety of high credit-quality issuers and limit the amount of credit exposure to any one issuer. The estimated fair values have been determined using available market information. We do not use derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio.
All investments with original maturities of three months or less are considered to be cash equivalents. We had money market funds of approximately $4.9 million and $8.9 million as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively, included in our cash and cash equivalents.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets ranging from three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful life of the assets.
We generate revenue principally from the sale of Probuphine in the U.S., collaborative research and development arrangements, technology licenses and sales, and government grants. Consideration received for revenue arrangements with multiple components is allocated among the separate performance obligations based upon their relative estimated standalone selling price.
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligations under our agreements, we perform the following steps for our revenue recognition: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) we satisfy each performance obligation.
Net Product Revenue
We recognize revenue from product sales when control of the product transfers, generally upon shipment or delivery, to our customers, which include distributors. As customary in the pharmaceutical industry, our gross product revenue is subject to a variety of deductions in the forms of variable consideration, such as rebates, chargebacks, returns and discounts, in arriving at reported net product revenue. This variable consideration is estimated using the most-likely amount method, which is the single most-likely outcome under a contract and is typically at stated contractual rates. The actual outcome of this variable consideration may materially differ from our estimates. From time to time, we will adjust our estimates of this variable consideration when trends or significant events indicate that a change in estimate is appropriate to reflect the actual experience. Additionally, we will continue to assess the estimates of our variable consideration as we continue to accumulate additional historical data. Changes in the estimates of our variable consideration could materially affect our financial statements.
Returns – Consistent with the provisions of ASC 606, we estimate returns at the inception of each transaction, based on multiple considerations, including historical sales, historical experience of actual customer returns, levels of inventory in our distribution channel, expiration dates of purchased products and significant market changes which may impact future expected returns to the extent that we would not reverse any receivables, revenues, or contract assets already recognized under the agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we entered into agreements with large national specialty pharmacies with a distribution channel different from that of our existing customers and, therefore, the related reserves have unique considerations. We will continue to evaluate the activities with these specialty pharmacies during upcoming quarters and will update the related reserves accordingly.
Rebates – Our provision for rebates is estimated based on our customers’ contracted rebate programs and our historical experience of rebates paid.
Discounts –The provision is estimated based upon invoice billings, utilizing historical customer payment experience.
The following table provides a summary of activity with respect to our product returns and discounts and rebates, which are included on our balance sheets within accrued sales allowances, and allowance for doubtful accounts, which are included on our balance sheets within receivables (in thousands):
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer. Our performance obligations include commercialization license rights, development services and services associated with the regulatory approval process.
We have optional additional items in contracts, which are accounted for as separate contracts when the customer elects such options. Arrangements that include a promise for future commercial product supply and optional research and development services at the customer’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess if these options provide a material right to the customer and, if so, such material rights are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If we are entitled to additional payments when the customer exercises these options, any additional payments are recorded in revenue when the customer obtains control of the goods or services.
We have both fixed and variable consideration. Non-refundable upfront payments are considered fixed, while milestone payments are identified as variable consideration when determining the transaction price. Funding of research and development activities is considered variable until such costs are reimbursed at which point they are considered fixed. We allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative estimated standalone selling prices of the promised goods or services for each performance obligation.
At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control, such as approvals from regulators, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received.
For arrangements that include sales-based royalties or earn-out payments, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license or purchase agreement is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties or earn-out payments relate, we recognizes revenue at the later of (a) when the related sales occur, or (b) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty or earn-out payment has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
Allocation of Consideration
As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. Estimated selling prices for license rights are calculated using the residual approach. For all other performance obligations, we use a cost-plus margin approach.
Timing of Recognition
Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under an arrangement and the period over which we expect to complete our performance obligations under an arrangement. We estimate the performance period or measure of progress at the inception of the arrangement and re-evaluate it each reporting period. This re-evaluation may shorten or lengthen the period over which revenue is recognized. Changes to these estimates are recorded on a cumulative catch up basis. If we cannot reasonably estimate when our performance obligations either are completed or become inconsequential, then revenue recognition is deferred until we can reasonably make such estimates. Revenue is then recognized over the remaining estimated period of performance using the cumulative catch-up method. Revenue is recognized for licenses or sales of functional intellectual property at the point in time the customer can use and benefit from the license. For performance obligations that are services, revenue is recognized over time proportionate to the costs that we have incurred to perform the services using the cost-to-cost input method.
Research and Development Costs and Related Accrual
Research and development expenses include internal and external costs. Internal costs include salaries and employment related expenses, facility costs, administrative expenses and allocations of corporate costs. External expenses consist of costs associated with outsourced contract research organization (“CRO”) activities, sponsored research studies, product registration, patent application and prosecution, and investigator sponsored trials. We also record accruals for estimated ongoing clinical trial costs. Clinical trial costs represent costs incurred by CROs and clinical sites. These costs are recorded as a component of research and development expenses. Under our agreements, progress payments are typically made to investigators, clinical sites and CROs. We analyze the progress of the clinical trials, including levels of patient enrollment, invoices received and contracted costs when evaluating the adequacy of accrued liabilities. Significant judgments and estimates must be made and used in determining the accrued balance in any accounting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions. Revisions are charged to expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known.
Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share excludes the effect of dilution and is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net loss per share reflects the potential dilution that could occur if securities or other contracts to issue shares were exercised into shares. In calculating diluted net loss per share, the numerator is adjusted for the change in the fair value of the warrant liability (only if dilutive) and the denominator is increased to include the number of potentially dilutive common shares assumed to be outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method.
The following table sets forth the reconciliation of the numerator and denominator used in the computation of basic and diluted net loss per common share for the years ended (in thousands, except per share amounts):
The table below presents common shares underlying stock options and warrants that are excluded from the calculation of the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding used for the calculation of diluted net loss per common share. These are excluded from the calculation due to their anti-dilutive effect for the years ended (in thousands):
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standard Update, or ASU, No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to enhance the transparency and comparability of financial reporting related to leasing arrangements. We adopted the standard effective January 1, 2019.
We determine whether the arrangement is or contains a lease at inception. Operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at commencement date. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable, and therefore, we utilize our incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.
Lease expense is recognized over the expected term on a straight-line basis. Operating leases are recognized on our balance sheet as right-of-use assets, operating lease liabilities current and operating lease liabilities non-current. We no longer recognize deferred rent on our balance sheet.
We have evaluated events that have occurred subsequent to December 31, 2019 and through the date that the financial statements are issued.
Fair Value Measurements
We measure the fair value of financial assets and liabilities based on authoritative guidance which defines fair value, establishes a framework consisting of three levels for measuring fair value, and requires disclosures about fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. There are three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 – quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 – quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are observable;
Level 3 – inputs that are unobservable (for example cash flow modeling inputs based on assumptions).
Financial instruments, including receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities are carried at cost, which we believe approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. The approximately $4.9 million and $8.9 million fair values of money market funds as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 included in our cash and cash equivalents are classified as Level 1 and were derived from quoted market prices as active markets for these instruments exists. Our warrant and derivative liabilities are classified within level 3 of the fair value hierarchy because the value is calculated using significant judgment based on our own assumptions in the valuation of these liabilities.
The following table rolls forward the fair value of our warrant liability, the fair value of which is determined by Level 3 inputs for the year ended December 31, 2019 (in thousands):
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we did not have any warrant liability.
The following table rolls forward the fair value of our derivative liability, the fair value of which is determined by Level 3 inputs for the years ended (in thousands):
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Standards Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Topic 842 requires most lessees to recognize right of use assets and lease liabilities, but recognize expenses in a manner similar with current accounting standards. Effective January 1, 2019, we adopted the provisions under Topic 842 using a modified retrospective transition approach without adjusting comparative periods. Additionally, as permitted by Topic 842, we elected to apply the following practical expedients: (i) not to reassess whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases or the classification of any expired or existing leases and (ii) not to apply the recognition requirements to short-term leases. As a result of this adoption, we recorded operating lease right-of-use asset and operating lease liability associated with our office lease in our balance sheet. We used a discount rate of 12%, which reflects our borrowing rate as of the adoption date, to measure the present value of future lease payments to determine the fair value of our operating lease right-of-use asset and liability. Our office lease expires in June 2021 and we did not include an estimated renewal in the calculation of our operating lease right-of-use asset and liability as we believe that it is less than probable we will renew our office lease. Our adoption of Topic 842 did not result in any cumulative adjustment to the balance of our accumulated deficit as of January 1, 2019. Lease expense for operating lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, which is consistent with Topic 840.
The following table presents maturities of our operating lease as of December 31, 2019 (in thousands):
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which aligns the accounting for share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees with the guidance applicable to grants to employees. Under the new standard, equity-classified share-based payment awards issued to nonemployees are measured on the grant date, instead of the current requirement to remeasure the awards through the performance completion date. We adopted ASU 2018-07 during the three months ended March 31, 2019 using the prospective approach. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have any material impact to our financial statements.
In August 2018, the SEC published Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, or DUSTR, which adopted amendments to certain disclosure requirements that have become redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded, in light of other SEC disclosure requirements, GAAP, or changes in the information environment. While most of the DUSTR amendments eliminate updated or duplicative disclosure requirements, the final rule amends the interim financial statement requirements to include a reconciliation of changes in stockholders’ equity in the notes or as a separate statement for each period for which a statement of comprehensive loss is required to be filed. We adopted ASU 2018-07 during the three months ended March 31, 2019 and included a reconciliation of changes in stockholders’ equity in our interim financial statements,
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses, which requires an organization to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Financial institutions and other organizations will now use forward-looking information to better inform their credit loss estimates. The amendments in this ASU are effective for us in our interim period ending March 31, 2023. We are currently assessing the impact of the adoption of Topic 326 on our financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which eliminates, adds and modifies certain disclosure requirements for fair value measurements as part of the FASB's disclosure framework project. The ASU is effective for us in our interim period ending March 31, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this ASU to have any significant impact on our quarterly or annual disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-15, Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement that Is a Service Contract. The ASU aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). Adoption of the ASU is either retrospective or prospective. The ASU is effective for us in our interim period ending March 31, 2020, with early adoption permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU No. 2018-15 on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef