Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
We are a pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics utilizing our proprietary long-term drug delivery platform, ProNeura®, for the treatment of select chronic diseases for which steady state delivery of a drug has the potential to provide an efficacy and/or safety benefit. ProNeura consists of a small, solid implant made from a mixture of ethylene-vinyl acetate, or EVA, and a drug substance. The resulting product is a solid matrix that is designed to be administered subdermally in a brief, outpatient procedure and is removed in a similar manner at the end of the treatment period.
Our first product based on our ProNeura technology was Probuphine® (buprenorphine implant), which is approved in the United States, Canada and the European Union, or EU, for the maintenance treatment of opioid use disorder in clinically stable patients taking 8 mg or less a day of oral buprenorphine. While Probuphine continues to be commercialized in Canada and in the EU (as Sixmo™) by other companies that have either licensed or acquired the rights from Titan, we discontinued commercialization of the product in the U.S. during the fourth quarter of 2020 to allow us to focus our limited resources on our product development programs.
In December 2021, we announced our intention to work with our financial advisor to explore strategic alternatives to enhance stockholder value, potentially including an acquisition, merger, reverse merger, other business combination, sales of assets, licensing or other transaction. In June 2022, we implemented a plan to reduce expenses and conserve capital that included a company-wide reduction in salaries and a scale back of certain operating expenses to enable us to maintain sufficient resources as we pursued potential strategic alternatives. In July 2022, David Lazar and Activist Investing LLC (collectively, “Activist”) acquired an approximately 25% ownership interest in Titan and filed a proxy statement for the purpose of nominating six additional directors to our board of directors (the “Board”) at a special meeting of stockholders held on August 15, 2022 (the “Special Meeting”). The six additional directors were elected at the Special Meeting and the exploration and evaluation of possible strategic alternatives by the Board has continued following the Special Meeting. Following the election of the new directors at the Special Meeting, Dr. Marc Rubin was replaced as our Executive Chairman, and David Lazar assumed the role of Chief Executive Officer. In connection with the termination of his employment as Executive Chairman, Dr. Rubin will receive aggregate severance payments of approximately $0.4 million, which are being paid out over a twelve-month period.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statement presentation. In the opinion of management, all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments) considered necessary for a fair presentation have been included. Operating results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2022, or any future interim periods.
The balance sheet as of December 31, 2021 is derived from the audited financial statements at that date, but does not include all the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements and footnotes thereto included in the Titan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
The preparation of condensed financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The accompanying condensed financial statements have been prepared assuming we will continue as a going concern.
As of September 30, 2022, we had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $4.5 million, which we believe is sufficient to fund our planned operations into the first quarter of 2023. We are exploring several financing and strategic alternatives; however, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful. Accordingly, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern.
In October 2020, we announced our decision to discontinue selling Probuphine in the U.S. and wind down our commercialization activities, and to pursue a plan that will enable us to focus on our current, early-stage ProNeura-based product development programs.
The accompanying condensed financial statements have been recast for all periods presented to reflect the assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses related to our U.S. commercialization activities as discontinued operations (see Note 7). The accompanying condensed financial statements are generally presented in conformity with our historical format. We believe this format provides comparability with the previously filed financial statements.
Going Concern Assessment
We assess going concern uncertainty in our financial statements to determine if we have sufficient cash on hand and working capital, including available borrowings on loans, to operate for a period of at least one year from the date the financial statements are issued, which is referred to as the “look-forward period” as defined by Accounting Standard Update ASU No. 2014-15. As part of this assessment, based on conditions that are known and reasonably knowable to us, we will consider various scenarios, forecasts, projections, estimates and will make certain key assumptions, including the timing and nature of projected cash expenditures or programs, and our ability to delay or curtail expenditures or programs, if necessary, among other factors. Based on this assessment, as necessary or applicable, we make certain assumptions around implementing curtailments or delays in the nature and timing of programs and expenditures to the extent we deem probable those implementations can be achieved and we have the proper authority to execute them within the look-forward period in accordance with ASU No. 2014-15.
Based upon the above assessment, we concluded that, at the date of filing the condensed financial statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2022, we did not have sufficient cash to fund our operations for the next 12 months without additional funds and, therefore, there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern within 12 months after the date the condensed financial statements were issued. Additionally, we have suffered recurring losses from operations and have an accumulated deficit that raises substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. We are exploring several financing and strategic alternatives; however, there can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Inventories are recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is based on the first in, first out method. We regularly review inventory quantities on hand and write down to its net realizable value any inventory that we believe to be impaired. The determination of net realizable value requires judgment including consideration of many factors, such as estimates of future product demand, product net selling prices, current and future market conditions and potential product obsolescence, among others. The components of inventories are as follows:
The approximately $66,000 of finished goods inventory at September 30, 2022 included materials held for potential sale.
We generate revenue principally from collaborative research and development arrangements, sales or licenses of technology, government grants, sales of Probuphine materials to holders of the ex-U.S. product rights, and prior to the discontinued operations, the sale of Probuphine in the U.S. Consideration received for revenue arrangements with multiple components is allocated among the separate performance obligations based upon their relative estimated standalone selling price.
In determining the appropriate amount of revenue to be recognized as we fulfill our obligations under our agreements, we perform the following steps for our revenue recognition: (i) identification of the promised goods or services in the contract; (ii) determination of whether the promised goods or services are performance obligations, including whether they are distinct in the context of the contract; (iii) measurement of the transaction price, including the constraint on variable consideration; (iv) allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations based on estimated selling prices; and (v) recognition of revenue when (or as) we satisfy each performance obligation.
We have contracts with National Institute on Drug Abuse or NIDA, within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or HHS, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and other government-sponsored organizations for research and development related activities that provide for payments for reimbursed costs, which may include overhead and general and administrative costs. We recognize revenue from these contracts as we perform services under these arrangements when the funding is committed. Associated expenses are recognized when incurred as research and development expense. Revenues and related expenses are presented gross in the condensed statements of operations.
Net Product Revenue
Prior to the discontinuation of our commercialization activities relating to Probuphine in the U.S., we recognized revenue from product sales when control of the product transfers, generally upon shipment or delivery, to our customers, which include distributors. As customary in the pharmaceutical industry, our gross product revenue was subject to a variety of deductions in the forms of variable consideration, such as rebates, chargebacks, returns and discounts, in arriving at reported net product revenue. This variable consideration was estimated using the most-likely amount method, which is the single most-likely outcome under a contract and was typically at stated contractual rates. The actual outcome of this variable consideration could materially differ from our estimates. From time to time, we would adjust our estimates of this variable consideration when trends or significant events indicated that a change in estimate is appropriate to reflect the actual experience. Additionally, we continued to assess the estimates of our variable consideration as we continued to accumulate additional historical data.
Returns – Consistent with the provisions of ASC 606, we estimated returns at the inception of each transaction, based on multiple considerations, including historical sales, historical experience of actual customer returns, levels of inventory in our distribution channel, expiration dates of purchased products and significant market changes which could impact future expected returns to the extent that we would not reverse any receivables, revenues, or contract assets already recognized under the agreement. During the year ended December 31, 2019, we entered into agreements with large national specialty pharmacies with a distribution channel different from that of our existing customers and, therefore, the related reserves had unique considerations. We continued to evaluate the activities with these specialty pharmacies and updated the related reserves accordingly.
Rebates – Our provision for rebates was estimated based on our customers’ contracted rebate programs and our historical experience of rebates paid.
Discounts – The provision was estimated based upon invoice billings, utilizing historical customer payment experience.
A performance obligation is a promise in a contract to transfer a distinct good or service to the customer. Our performance obligations include commercialization license rights, development services and services associated with the regulatory approval process.
We have optional additional items in contracts, which are accounted for as separate contracts when the customer elects such options. Arrangements that include a promise for future commercial product supply and optional research and development services at the customer’s discretion are generally considered as options. We assess if these options provide a material right to the customer and, if so, such material rights are accounted for as separate performance obligations. If we are entitled to additional payments when the customer exercises these options, any additional payments are recorded in revenue when the customer obtains control of the goods or services.
We have both fixed and variable consideration. Non-refundable upfront payments are considered fixed, while milestone payments are identified as variable consideration when determining the transaction price. Funding of research and development activities is considered variable until such costs are reimbursed at which point, they are considered fixed. We allocate the total transaction price to each performance obligation based on the relative estimated standalone selling prices of the promised goods or services for each performance obligation.
At the inception of each arrangement that includes milestone payments, we evaluate whether the milestones are considered probable of being achieved and estimate the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the value of the associated milestone is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within our control, such as approvals from regulators, are not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received.
For arrangements that include sales-based royalties or earn-out payments, including milestone payments based on the level of sales, and the license or purchase agreement is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties or earn-out payments relate, we recognize revenue at the later of (a) when the related sales occur, or (b) when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty or earn-out payment has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).
Allocation of Consideration
As part of the accounting for these arrangements, we must develop assumptions that require judgment to determine the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified in the contract. Estimated selling prices for license rights are calculated using the residual approach. For all other performance obligations, we use a cost-plus margin approach.
Timing of Recognition
Significant management judgment is required to determine the level of effort required under an arrangement and the period over which we expect to complete our performance obligations under an arrangement. We estimate the performance period or measure of progress at the inception of the arrangement and re-evaluate it each reporting period. This re-evaluation may shorten or lengthen the period over which revenue is recognized. Changes to these estimates are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis. If we cannot reasonably estimate when our performance obligations either are completed or become inconsequential, then revenue recognition is deferred until we can reasonably make such estimates. Revenue is then recognized over the remaining estimated period of performance using the cumulative catch-up method. Revenue is recognized for licenses or sales of functional intellectual property at the point in time the customer can use and benefit from the license. For performance obligations that are services, revenue is recognized over time proportionate to the costs that we have incurred to perform the services using the cost-to-cost input method.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
The following table presents the activity related to our accounts receivable for the nine months ended September 30, 2022.
Research and Development Costs and Related Accrual
Research and development expenses include internal and external costs. Internal costs include salaries and employment related expenses, facility costs, administrative expenses and allocations of corporate costs. External expenses consist of costs associated with outsourced contract research organization (“CRO”) activities, sponsored research studies, product registration, and investigator sponsored trials. Significant judgments and estimates must be made and used in determining the accrued balance in any accounting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates under different assumptions. Revisions are charged to expense in the period in which the facts that give rise to the revision become known.
We determine whether the arrangement is or contains a lease at inception. Operating lease right-of-use assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the present value of the future lease payments at commencement date. The interest rate implicit in lease contracts is typically not readily determinable, and therefore, we utilize our incremental borrowing rate, which is the rate incurred to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment. Certain adjustments to the right-of-use asset may be required for items such as initial direct costs paid or incentives received.
Lease expense is recognized over the expected term on a straight-line basis. Operating leases are recognized on our condensed balance sheets as right-of-use assets, operating lease liabilities current and operating lease liabilities non-current.
The following table presents the minimum lease payments of our operating lease:
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses, which requires an organization to measure all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Financial institutions and other organizations will now use forward-looking information to better inform their credit loss estimates. The amendments in this ASU are effective beginning on January 1, 2023. We are currently assessing the impact of the adoption of Topic 326 on our condensed financial statements and disclosures.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform, which provides companies with optional guidance, including expedients and exceptions for applying GAAP to contracts and other transactions affected by reference rate reform, such as the London Interbank Offered Rate, or LIBOR. This new standard was effective upon issuance and generally can be applied to applicable contract modifications through December 31, 2022. We are evaluating the effects that the adoption of this guidance will have on our condensed financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity, which simplifies the accounting for convertible instruments. ASU 2020-06 eliminates certain models that require separate accounting for embedded conversion features, in certain cases. Additionally, among other changes, the guidance eliminates certain of the conditions for equity classification for contracts in an entity’s own equity. The guidance also requires entities to use the if converted method for all convertible instruments in the diluted earnings per share calculation and include the effect of share settlement for instruments that may be settled in cash or shares, except for certain liability-classified share-based payment awards. This guidance is effective beginning after December 15, 2023 and must be applied using either a modified or full retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact this guidance will have on our condensed financial statements and related disclosures.
In November 2021, the FASB issued FASB issued ASU 2021-10, Disclosures by Business Entities about Government Assistance. The ASU codifies new requirements to disclose information about the nature of certain government assistance received, the accounting policy used to account for the transactions, the location in the financial statements where such transactions were recorded and significant terms and conditions associated with such transactions. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2021. The adoption of ASU No. 2021-10 did not have a material impact to our condensed financial statements and related disclosures.
We have evaluated events that have occurred after September 30, 2022 and through the date that our condensed financial statements are issued.
Fair Value Measurements
Financial instruments, including receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities are carried at cost, and their fair values are approximated due to the short-term nature of these instruments. Our investments in money market funds are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.
At September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the fair value of our investments in money market funds were approximately $4.1 million and $5.7 million, respectively, which are included within our cash and cash equivalents in our condensed balance sheets.